Academic Integrity

Students are expected to do their own work and not copy from other students or from books or other sources. Being honest!

Introduction to Essays

Learning Objectives

What is an essay?

Parts of an essay

Purpose of the paragrphs

If the body paragraphs are not related thesis statement, rewrite the paragraphs or update thesis.

Types of Essays

These essays use a 5 paragraphs structure.

Rules of Academic Essays

Different Kinds of Essays


Introduction Paragraphs

Learning Objectives


Surprising Statement

Some people may not realize that McDonald's hamburgers can last for many years without rotting.

Anecdote (story)

The American soccer team was not expected to do well in the World Cup. Then they surprised everyone by beating Ghana in the first match. This early success made fans believe that the U.S. team could go far in the tournament.

Short story related topic.


What makes teenagers lie to their parents?

Sould be careful. Get to the point rather than asking rhetorical questions.


Andy Warhol wisely pointed out that "As soon as you stop wanting something, you get it."

Don't use quotes that everyone knows.


Researchers have found that there are 1.22 more deaths from car accidents in rural areas than in urban areas in the U.S.

Numbers can be boring. Don't use too common or too complated one.


Form of the introduction paragraph. Narrow down from general to thesis, specific, controlling idea.

Sample Introduction Paragraph

  1. Two years ago, John Smith was robbed at gun point while walking home from a movie theater. The thief took his money, watch, and cell phone. (Anecdote)
  2. In high crime neighborhoods like his, this frequently happens. (Anecdote)
  3. There are not enough police to protect innocent people walking home at night. (more specific)
  4. Smallville needs more police to control gangs and drug users and to decrease violence. (Argument, very specific = Thesis statement)

Thesis Statements

topic + controlling idea

Things to avoid

Sample Thesis Statements


Body Paragraphs

Learning Objectives

Academic Essay Types

All types require body paragraphs.

Structure of a body paragraph

Topic Sentences

Topic sentences support the thesis statement

Supporting Ideas

Details and Examples


e.g. First, ..., Another reason is ..., Finally, ...


Paragraph Basics

Learning Objectives

Body paragraph types

Paragraph Structure

Topic Sentences

Supporting Ideas

Smith University has a better MBA program than Johnson University.

All supporting ideas are more specific than topic sentence. These idea rquire more details and examples.

Details and Examples

Smith has more former Wall Street executives working as professors than Johnson.

These details are most specific sentences in the paragraphs.

Conclusion Sentence


Cohesion / Coherence



Topic Sentence

Conclusion Paragraphs

Lecture Objectives

How to end the essay

Remember your Thesis and Topic Sentences

Sample Conclusion

In conclusion, learning a new language as an adult may be difficult, but the benefits are worth it. Everyone can appreciate a broader perspective on the world, better job opportunities, and improved mental function.

It summarizes the thesis and topic sentences.

Other ways to end an essays

Also, you can uses combination of these methods.




Parents have a responsibility to protect their children. If they do not stop their children from playing violent games, they risk having their children become violent. This could lead to bullying or even worse crimes as an adult.

Writing Process




Revise, Write, Revise, Write, ... Repeat!


Looking for mistakes.

Wait till end for this.

Final Draft

Good writers follow some kind of a process.

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